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Indonesia’s biodiversity richness is made possible by several factors: it is located between two continents (Asia and Australia) and two oceans (Pacific and Indian) and it has a unique geographical feature (State Ministry of Environment, 1997). Indonesia is an archipelago of more than 17,500 islands extending 5,000 km along the equator and spanning two major biogeographical realms (Indomalaya and Australasia) with the Wallace Line in between, as well as several distinct biogeographical provinces. As a result, Indonesia is not only a megabiodiversity country but also has a high level of endemism.

Many of Indonesia's forests include in Tropical Rain Forest is a complex community whose framework is provided by trees of many sizes.Forest canopy is used as a general one to describe the total plant community above the ground. Within the canopy the microclimate differs from that. outside; there is less light, humidity is higher, and temperature is lower. Many of the smaller trees grow in the shade of the larger ones in the microclimate that these produce. Upon the framework of the tree and within the microclimate of the canopy grow a range of other kinds of plants: climbers, epiphytes, strangling, plants parasites, and saprophytes. The trees and most of the other plants are rooted in the soil and draw nutrients and water from it. Their fallen leaves, twigs, branches, and other parts provide; food for a host of invertebrate animals, amongst which termites are often important, and for fungi and bacteria. Nutrients are returned to the soil via decay of fallen parts and by leaching from the leaves by rain-water. It is a feature of tropical rain forest that most of the total nutrient store is in the vegetation; relatively little is held in the soil.

Indonesia’s forests are an extraordinary natural phenomenon, of immense value and beauty. Over ten per cent of the planet’s diversity of plants and animals are found only in Indonesia, including orangutan, elephants, tigers, rhinoceros, a thousand species of birds, and thousands of plant species. The archipelago is also home to hundreds of indigenous groups who have lived from and managed Indonesia’s forests for thousands of years. The forests provide food, medicines, building materials and clothing fibers, not only for indigenous communities, but also for world markets. Indonesia also possesses more endangered species than any other country in the world largely because of deforestation.

 

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The Procedure Of Implementation Afforestation And Reforestation Project Under The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) In Indonesia.

by : Dr. Gun Mardiatmoko (gum_mardi@yahoo.com) (HP:+6281904227676)

I. INTRODUCTION

Indonesian forest with mega biodiversity, is very potential for the implementation of carbon trading schemes, i.e. the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) scheme, Reducing Emission from Deforestation and Degradation (REDD) scheme and Voluntary scheme. The Forestry CDM is a partnership between developed country and developing country to reduce Green House Gases (GHG) emission through forestry activity: afforestation and reforestation. Principally, carbon trading will assist in reconstruction of forest ecology and forest protection in Indonesia.

The actor of the Forestry CDM is called developer of afforestation & reforestation project under the CDM. This developer is a union of two institutions between investor from developed country (Annex I of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change/UNFCC) and business sector by state or private company, cooperation or personal from developing country.

The Kyoto Protocol is a 1997 international treaty which came into force in 2005, which binds most developed nations to a cap and trade system for the six major green house gases. Emission quotas were agreed by each participating country, with the intention of reducing their overall emissions by 5.2% of their 1990 levels by the end of 2012. Under the treaty, for the 5-year compliance period from 2008 until 2012, nations that emit less than their quota will be able to sell emissions credits to nations that exceed their quota. It is also possible for developed countries within the trading scheme to sponsor carbon projects that provide a reduction in green house gas emissions in other countries, as a way of generating trade-able carbon credits. The Protocol allows this through Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), in order to provide flexible mechanisms to aid regulated entities in meeting their compliance with their caps. The UNFCC validates all CDM projects to ensure they create genuine additional savings and that there is no carbon leakage.

Carbon Trading is a market based mechanism for helping mitigate the increase of CO2 in the atmosphere. Carbon trading markets are developed that bring buyers and sellers of carbon credits together with standardized rules of trade. Any entity, typically a business, that emits CO2 to the atmosphere may have an interest or may be required by law to balance their emissions through mechanism of Carbon sequestration. These businesses may include power generating facilities or many kinds of manufacturers. Entities that manage forest or agricultural land might sell carbon credits based on the accumulation of carbon in their forest trees or agricultural soils. Similarly, business entities that reduce their carbon emission may be able to sell their reductions to other emitters. The legal aspect of carbon trading is Certificate of Emission Reductions (CERs).

Developer of afforestation & reforestation project under the CDM can obtain CERs if they make: (1) Project proposal of afforestation & reforestation project under the CDM and (2) Project Design Document for project activities under the CDM. Developer requirement of afforestation & reforestation project under the CDM in Indonesia, in general as below:

  • Developer has license to use the product of forest wood at forest plantation/industrial forest plantation or to use environmental benefit from carbon trading.

  • Developer has a letter of land information/recommendation for the CDM from regency at project area respective.

  • Developer makes project proposal regarding the CDM and send proposal to the Ministry of Forestry of Republic of Indonesia.
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Source :
The Procedure Of Implementation Afforestation And Reforestation Project Under The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) In Indonesia.

by : Dr. Gun Mardiatmoko (gum_mardi@yahoo.com).
FORESTRY DEPARTMENT, FACULTY OF AGRICULTURE, PATTIMURA UNIVERSITY. 2009


 

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